Human Resources Degrees and Certifications: What You'll Study in an HR Program
Learn about the different classes you'll take as you embark on your education for an HR career.
Human resources is a broad field that offers employment opportunities no matter what degree level you attain.
From associate's degrees to master's and MBA degrees in HR, the field is rife with possibility, and there are even a number of professional certifications to help you progress in your career. In fact, Forbes considered human resources management the third best job in their 2012 poll of best and worst jobs. Read on to learn more about degree types and how they can further your career in human resources.
What degree levels are available?
Associate's Degree Programs
Graduates with an associate's degree in human resources management qualify for entry-level positions, such as basic human resources generalists. HR associate's degree holders often also enter into specialized HR roles in private, public and nonprofit organizations; human resource clerks, HR assistants and assistant recruiters are some of the most popular jobs. Others work as training and development coordinators, payroll assistants and compensation or benefits specialists.
Bachelor's Degree Programs
A human resource management bachelor's degree equips you with the necessary tools to enter an HR career in a variety of business settings.
Programs typically include a comprehensive overview of human resources principles and practices, business and technology training and communication courses.
Students can expect a human resources bachelor's program to include core business training in areas, such as accounting, finance, information technology and marketing. Additionally, most programs require an array of general education courses to meet various general studies distributions and also allow room for electives.
As an example of a typical course load, University of Phoenix offers the following program of 120 credit hours of undergraduate courses for Bachelor of Science in Business with a concentration in Human Resources:
Examples of Core Courses
Business Communications and Critical Thinking: Students will develop skills in critical thinking and decision making through the forms of written communication, including memos, emails, business letters, and reports. Other topics include communication ethics and cross-cultural communications, personal communication styles, solving organizational problems, and the evaluation of an organizations strategic direction.
Introduction to Computer Applications and Systems: Students learn to apply Microsoft® Office tools including work processing, spreadsheet, database, and presentation software to accomplish business objectives.
Management Theory and Practice: This course explores the rich field of management in theory and practice, and as both a science and an art. Students learn to apply management concepts to current workplace issues
Ethics and Social Responsibility: This course provides a foundational perspective for ethics and social responsibility in relationship to individuals, organizations, and the community.
Organizational Development: This organizational behavior course encompasses the study of individual and group behavior in organizational settings. Other topics include strategic elements of organizational behavior, workforce diversity, managing change, effective communication, and performance systems.
Fundamentals of Human Resources Management: This course will provide students with a critical perspective on the development of human capital in the context of a unified system of attracting, retaining and developing talent that creates and supports the vision and values of the organization. Students will develop an understanding of the critical business implications for human resource professionals today.
Strategic Human Resource Management and Emerging Issues: The course explores how to align human resource management (HRM) with the business strategies, and the emerging issues facing business, and to understand the HRM competencies and leadership skills necessary to be a true strategic business partner.
Master of Business Administration (MBA) Programs
Both an MBA with a concentration in human resources and a human resource master's degree will prepare you to take on HR leadership positions across industries. MBA and master's in human resources graduates go on to attain such high positions as director or vice president of human resources.
While each track offers advanced training in human resources and managerial concepts and theories, the human resources MBA allows students to develop a broad set of business skills that can also transfer to other arenas.
In contrast, the highly specialized master's in HR offers students the opportunity to focus almost exclusively on issues related to human resources.
What certification will I need?
Schools and universities now offer short, intense certificate programs in HR specialties such as compensation and benefits management or employee relations. These certificate courses are ideal for those already pursuing a career in HR, who are want to make a lateral move from one area to another.
If you are new to HR, a certificate course may also enable you to test the waters and help you decide whether a career in HR is for you. By sampling a few courses, you can assess your interest level. Often, universities will allow you to enroll in their certificate courses and then transfer the credits into their full-time degree programs.
Professional human resource certifications provide a widely recognized way to demonstrate your HR knowledge and training. The Human Resource Certification Institute (HRCI) awards several levels of professional certification:
- PHR (Professional in Human Resources)—The PHR Certification exam is comprised of a test in the following areas: strategic development, workforce planning and employment, human resource development, total rewards, employee and labor relations and risk management.
- SPHR (Senior Professional in Human Resources)—The SPHR Certification exam is comprised of a test in the following areas: strategic development, workforce planning and employment, human resource development, total rewards, employee and labor relations and risk management.
- GPHR (Global Professional in Human Resources)—The GPHR Certification exam is comprised of a test in the following areas: strategic HR management, organizational effectiveness and employee development, global staffing, international assignment management, global compensation and benefits and international employee relations and regulations.
- PHR-CA and SPHR-CA (PHR and GHR with state certification in California)—The California certification is designed to augment the PHR and SPHR certifications and it focuses on California laws and practices that are different from federal laws and practices.
HRCI certifications require a "hands-on" experience component, which generally translates to approximately two years of experience as an HR professional. This qualification adds a great deal of value to the certification and is helpful in convincing employers that you are as well-versed in HR practice as you are in theory. These certifications also require you to complete a certificate or degree program and pass an exam.
What will I learn in my courses?
In general, course work for an associate's degree in human resources covers personnel recruitment and evaluation, employee relations, staff training and development, employment law, business ethics and compensation and benefits. Students should also expect to take some general education courses, such as math and writing. Course work for a human resources management bachelor's degree covers contemporary HR issues, including the following:
- Organizational theory and design
- Behavioral science
- Legal issues in HR management
- Performance management and assessment
- Employee training and development
- Compensation and benefits
The curriculum for an MBA in human resources generally involves corporate management and business strategy concepts, organizational behavior and design, ethical leadership, and in-depth HR concepts and tools as they relate to general management.
Course work for a human resources master's degree typically involves detailed studies of human resource subsystems, including legal issues in the workplace, compensation and benefits, and recruitment and training. Students will also take classes covering leadership and strategic management concepts, organizational psychology and organizational design.
How long will it take?
Depending upon your level of dedication, a human resources major can take the following time to complete:
- Associate's degree programs, which provide entry-level opportunity, usually take two years
- A bachelor's degree program takes four years
- Master's degree programs and MBAs generally require one to two years
Are online programs available?
Yes! There are many online courses available for those wishing to earn a degree in HR. Online human resources training offers the same high-quality education that you would expect to receive through a traditional campus program.
Depending on your degree level, you can expect course work for your HR online program to encompass general or advanced studies of human resources policies and procedures, which may include:
- Contemporary HR issues
- Employee relations
- Compensation and benefits
- Legal issues in the workplace
- Organizational psychology
Different colleges may also require classes in core business subjects, information technology and general electives as part of their online human resources training.
With a completed online human resource degree, graduates qualify for jobs in such HR areas as these:
- Human resources generalists
- Compensation or benefits managers
- Training and development coordinators
- Corporate recruiters
- Employee relations managers
How much will my education cost?
Bachelor's degree programs vary depending upon the institution you attend. According to College Board's Trends in College Pricing 2013-2014, the average annual cost* for a four-year, public institution runs around $8,893 for in-state tuition and $22,203 for out-of-state-tuition.
The average annual cost for a four-year private non-profit school is $30,094 and $15,130 for a private for-profit school. Master's degree program tuition at in-state public institutions cost an average of $7,750 annually, and doctorate program tuition cost $9,804 annually at in-state public institutions.
Attending an accredited school may allow you to apply for financial aid, whether the school you select is a traditional classroom or online program.
Are there prerequisites?
Undergraduate: A strong college preparatory high school education is a good start for a human resources degree program. Since HR is a field that deals with people, courses in English, communications, speech and debate are highly recommended. If your school offers computer technology classes make sure you enroll, as these skills will be integral throughout college and into your career. Make sure you join business clubs at your school, or work at a part time summer job that is in an office setting.
Graduate: A completed, four-year bachelor's degree in human resources or a related business field will prepare you for graduate school.
GRE and GMAT: The Graduate Record Examination (GRE) or Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) is not required for admission to degree programs in the U.S. However, you may submit a score for review with your admission materials.
What accreditation is there for my program?
Accreditation shows that an institution or program meets standards of quality set forth by an accrediting agency, and that it is committed not only to meet those standards but to continuously seek ways in which to improve the quality of education and training provided. There are two types of educational accreditation: institutional and specialized.
Specialized accrediting agencies for HR degree programs include the following:
- The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB): AACSB International accredits degree programs in business administration and accounting at bachelor’s, master’s and doctorate levels
- Accreditation Council for Business Schools & Programs (ACBSP): ACBSP accredits business, accounting and business-related programs at the associate, bachelors, masters and doctorate degree levels worldwide
- International Assembly for Collegiate Business Education (IACBE): The IACBE accredits business programs that lead to associate, bachelors, masters and doctorate degrees. It does not accredit institutions that only offer associate degrees in business
In addition, the HRCI was granted accreditation status to their PHR, SPHR and GPHR certification programs by the National Commission for Certifying Agencies (NCAA) in 2008, ensuring high quality and standards for their professional credential program.
Institutional accreditation is provided by regional and national associations of schools and colleges, such as The Higher Learning Commission. Institutional accreditation is provided by regional and national associations of schools and colleges. There are six regional associations, each named after the region in which it operates (Middle States, New England, North Central, Northwest, Southern, Western). Learn more about accreditation.
What should I expect my student-teacher ratio to be?
Students in undergraduate human resource degree programs will find a higher student-teacher ratio as many preparatory business classes are often lecture-oriented and you can expect class size to be larger. As a rule, the further you progress in your education and field of specialty the smaller you should expect the ratio to become.
The ideal student-teacher ratio is around 14:1 according to U.S. News & World Report's Best Schools survey.
One criticism of online programs is that you're isolated from your teachers and classmates, but the opposite is often true. You may actually interact more with instructors and peers in online discussions, social media venues, and emails, than in a traditional classroom setting. The National Center for Education Statistics ranks the top 64 online universities on a number of factors, including student-teacher ratio. They found a range of 7:1–94:1 for their top 64 not-for-profit and for-profit schools.